Amazon EC2: AMI vs. EBS vs. Snapshot vs. Volume

September 30, 2013 Leave a comment

An AMI is a machine image. It’s a total snapshot of a system stored as an image that can be launched as an instance. We’ll get back to AMI’s in a minute.

Lets look at EBS. Your other two items are sub-items of this. EBS is a virtual block device. You can think of it as a hard drive, although it’s really a bunch of software magic to link into another kind of storage device but make it look like a hard drive to an instance.

EBS is just the name for the whole service. Inside of EBS you have what are called volumes. These are the “unit” amazon is selling you. You create a volume and they allocate you X number of gigabytes and you use it like a hard drive that you can plug into any of your running computers (instances). Volumes can either be created blank or from a snapshot copy of previous volume, which brings us to the next topic.

Snapshots are … well … snapshots of volumes: An exact capture of what a volume looked like at a particular moment in time, including all it’s data. You could have a volume, attach it to your instance, fill it up with stuff, then snapshot it, but keep using it. The volume contents would keep changing as you used it as a file system but the snapshot would be frozen in time. You could create a new volume using this snapshot as a base. The new volume would look exactly like your first disk did when you took the snapshot. You could start using the new volume in place of the old one to roll-back your data, or maybe attach the same data set to a second machine. You can keep taking snapshots of volumes at any point in time. It’s like a freeze-frame instance backup that can then easy be made into a new live disk (volume) whenever you need it.

So volumes can be based on new blank space or on a snapshot. Got that? Volumes can be attached and detached from any instances, but only connected to one instance at a time, just like the physical disk that they are a virtual abstraction of.

Now back to AMI’s. These are tricky because there are two types. One creates an ephemeral instances where the root files system looks like a drive to the computer but actually sits in memory somewhere and vaporizes the minute it stops being used. The other kind is called an EBS backed instance. This means that when your instances loads up, it loads it’s root file system onto a new EBS volume, basically layering the EC2 virtual machine technology on top of their EBS technology. A regular EBS volume is something that sits next to EC2 and can be attached, but an EBS backed instance also IS a volume itself.

An regular AMI is just a big chunk of data that get’s loaded up as a machine. An EBS backed AMI will get loaded up onto an EBS volume, so you can shut it down and it will start back up from where you left off just like a real disk would.

Now put it all together. If an instance is EBS backed, you can also snapshot it. Basically this does exactly what a regular snapshot would … a freeze frame of the root disk of your computer at a moment in time. In practice, it does two things different. One is it shuts down your instance so that you get a copy of the disk as it would look to an OFF computer, not an ON one. This makes it easier to boot up, So when you snapshot an instance, it shuts it down, takes the disk picture, then starts up again. Secondly, it saves that images as an AMI instead of as a regular disk snapshot. Basically it’s a bootable snapshot of a volume.

Categories: Architecture

IIS7 ‘classic’ vs. ‘integrated’ pipeline mode

September 30, 2013 Leave a comment

Classic Mode (the only mode in IIS6 and below) is a mode where IIS only works with ISAPI extensions and ISAPI filters directly. In fact, in this mode, ASP.NET is just an ISAPI extension (aspnet_isapi.dll) and an ISAPI filter (aspnet_filter.dll). IIS just treats ASP.NET as an external plugin implemented in ISAPI and works with it like a black box (and only when it’s needs to give out the request to ASP.NET). In this mode, ASP.NET is not much different from PHP or other technologies for IIS.

Integrated Mode, on the other hand, is a new mode in IIS7 where IIS pipeline is tightly integrated (i.e. is just the same) as ASP.NET request pipeline. ASP.NET can see every request it wants to and manipulate things along the way. ASP.NET is no longer treated as an external plugin. It’s completely blended and integrated in IIS. In this mode, ASP.NET HttpModules basically have nearly as much power as an ISAPI filter would have had and ASP.NET HttpHandlers can have nearly equivalent capability as an ISAPI extension could have. In this mode, ASP.NET is basically a part of IIS.

Categories: ASP.NET, General, HTTP, IIS

FTP (Active FTP vs. Passive FTP)

October 15, 2012 Leave a comment

Introduction

One of the most commonly seen questions when dealing with firewalls and other Internet connectivity issues is the difference between active and passive FTP and how best to support either or both of them. Hopefully the following text will help to clear up some of the confusion over how to support FTP in a firewalled environment.

This may not be the definitive explanation, as the title claims, however, I’ve heard enough good feedback and seen this document linked in enough places to know that quite a few people have found it to be useful. I am always looking for ways to improve things though, and if you find something that is not quite clear or needs more explanation, please let me know! Recent additions to this document include the examples of both active and passive command line FTP sessions. These session examples should help make things a bit clearer. They also provide a nice picture into what goes on behind the scenes during an FTP session. Now, on to the information…

The Basics

FTP is a TCP based service exclusively. There is no UDP component to FTP. FTP is an unusual service in that it utilizes two ports, a ‘data’ port and a ‘command’ port (also known as the control port). Traditionally these are port 21 for the command port and port 20 for the data port. The confusion begins however, when we find that depending on the mode, the data port is not always on port 20.

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Categories: Architecture, FTP, General

Entity Framework: Self-Tracking Entities

December 6, 2011 Leave a comment

Working with Self-Tracking Entities

In an Entity Framework application, an object context is responsible for tracking changes in the entities in an object graph. However, in N-tier scenarios, the object context might not be available on the tier that modifies the entities. Starting with the .NET Framework version 4, self-tracking entities can help you track changes in any tier.

NOTE: Use self-tracking entities only if the object context is not available on a tier where the changes to the object graph are made. If the object context is available, use EntityObject derived types, or “plain-old” CLR objects (POCO) types, or POCO proxy types.

Starting with Microsoft Visual Studio 2010, the ADO.NET Self-Tracking Entity Generator template generates self-tracking entities. This template item generates two .tt (text template) files: .tt and .Context.tt. The .tt file generates the entity types and a helper class that contains the change-tracking logic that is used by self-tracking entities and the extension methods that allow setting state on self-tracking entities. The .Context.tt file generates a typed ObjectContext and an extension class that contains ApplyChanges methods for the ObjectContext and ObjectSet classes. These methods examine the change-tracking information that is contained in the graph of self-tracking entities to infer the set of operations that must be performed to save the changes in the database.

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New Syntax for HTML Encoding Output in ASP.NET 4

August 19, 2011 Leave a comment

Thanks to Scott Guthrie…

Today’s post covers a small, but very useful, new syntax feature being introduced with ASP.NET 4 – which is the ability to automatically HTML encode output within code nuggets.  This helps protect your applications and sites against cross-site script injection (XSS) and HTML injection attacks, and enables you to do so using a nice concise syntax.

HTML Encoding

Cross-site script injection (XSS) and HTML encoding attacks are two of the most common security issues that plague web-sites and applications.  They occur when hackers find a way to inject client-side script or HTML markup into web-pages that are then viewed by other visitors to a site.  This can be used to both vandalize a site, as well as enable hackers to run client-script code that steals cookie data and/or exploits a user’s identity on a site to do bad things.

One way to help mitigate against cross-site scripting attacks is to make sure that rendered output is HTML encoded within a page.  This helps ensures that any content that might have been input/modified by an end-user cannot be output back onto a page containing tags like <script> or <img> elements.

 

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Categories: ASP.NET, Encoding, Security Tags:
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